Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa by Robert I. Rotberg

By Robert I. Rotberg

Even supposing Afghanistan and Iraq are on the epicenter of America’s struggle on terror, terrorist teams threaten different components of the area to boot. essentially the most harmful is the higher Horn of Africa region—Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and the Sudan, besides Yemen, their risky neighbor. Al Qaeda has already struck within the quarter, and the area’s advanced heritage, shared poverty, negative governance, underdevelopment, and popular resistance opposed to Western colonizers have created an complex internet of chance for strength terrorists. during this well timed ebook, Robert Rotberg and his coauthors offer authoritative perception into the fight opposed to terrorism within the Horn, examining what has been performed and what paintings is still. The contributors—prominent students and practitioners, together with a number of present and previous U.S. ambassadors—argue that Washington must craft a nuanced new coverage applicable to the quarter and its person international locations. They rigidity that there's no alternative for better U.S. involvement in any and all boards. yet U.S. efforts on my own are inadequate to house the continued threats of al Qaeda and homegrown terrorism. Seamless nearby and overseas responses also are useful. the U.S. needs to advertise strong governance during the area through strengthening diplomatic realizing of the world and extending help to these international locations that already play a key function in counterterrorism operations, yet who suffer from terrible employment, schooling, and social companies. while, the U.S. can proactively help inner democracy in parts the place the suppression of liberties is usual. combating Terrorism within the Horn of Africa presents important classes on what should be performed on the tension-filled crossroads of Africa and the Arab global. it will be important examining for all these fascinated by knowing and scuffling with overseas terrorism, in addition to people with an curiosity in African or center jap affairs. participants: Robert D. Burrowes (University of Washington), Timothy Carney (former U.S. ambassador to Sudan), Johnnie Carson (former U.S. ambassador to Kenya), Dan Connell (Grassroots International), Kenneth J. Menkhaus (Davidson College), Lange Schermerhorn (former U.S. ambassador to Djibouti), and David Shinn (former U.S. ambassador to Ethiopia).

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As an organization, AIAI has essentially disbanded, existing only as a loose network of “alumni, ” in part to attract less attention from counterterrorism surveillance. However, some ex-AIAI leaders, such as Hassan Dahir Aweys, remain politically active. Aweys has successfully co-opted local Somali shari’a court structures as a platform for political influence; as deputy chairman of the Joint Shari’a Courts, Aweys made headlines in October 2004 by vowing to order shari’a militia to attack any foreign peacekeeping troops deployed in Somalia to assist the TFG.

Carson writes that opportunities and hope are drying up along the coast of Kenya, especially for politically vulnerable young men. So they have turned to the Middle East for work, for training, for religious education, and for succor. Returning, they have brought Islamist approaches and sympathies, built new mosques and 01-7570-6 ch01 rotberg 10/17/05 8:31 AM The Horn of Africa and Yemen Page 21 21 madrassas, and imported new preachers. Improved governance is the obvious answer to the overall problem in the medium term.

The Qadiriya, Salihiya, and Ahmadiya sects—found worldwide—are the most influential in Somalia today. Of these, only the Salihiya is distinguished by involvement in modern politics—it was the sect of Said Mohamed Abdullah Hassan (the “Mad Mullah”), who waged a twenty-year war of resistance against British and Italian colonial rule in northern Somalia, beginning in 1899. It is noteworthy that the two examples in Somalia’s history of Islamic identity being successfully mobilized for jihad were both anti-foreign, antiChristian liberation movements: the Said’s anticolonial resistance and a sixteenth-century jihad against Abyssinian conquest, led by Imam Ahmed Gurey.

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