By Walter Leuthold
This publication has been written as a rule within reach of untamed African ungulates, on the study middle in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many gains, there have been additionally a couple of drawbacks. the most this type of is the truth that Voi isn't precisely on the hub of clinical job, whether we limit ourselves to African ungulates. hence, while I had felt at first that i used to be sufficiently accustomed to ethological paintings on those animals to jot down an invaluable evaluation, it quickly turned woefully glaring that this assumption was once inaccurate. during the last few years stories on African ungulates have professional liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the area. My place in East Africa used to be occasionally under excellent with appreciate to entry to the latest literature, and that i depended to a substantial quantity at the goodwill of associates in giving or lending me suitable papers. i'm satisfied to document that I got loads of aid and cooperation during this appreciate. however, i could have over seemed a few very important papers inadvertently; their authors will not be believe slighted by way of such omissions, which in basic terms replicate availability of literature to me. Readers can also observe a substantial geographical bias in prefer of East Africa, on the cost of different African areas, relatively South Africa.
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Extra resources for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
This releasing mechanism might well be a basic "ingredient" in the development of localized defecation. " It is noteworthy that, with few exceptions, associated behavior is best developed in species with localized defecation. In many cases, the same applies with regard to pronounced, visually striking defecation postures (see below, dikdik and gerenuk). These facts further indicate that urination and, particularly, defecation have acquired important secondary functions in social communication in the course of evolution; they have been ritualized ("Kot-Zeremoniell" of Pilters, 1954).
A number of African ungulates are apparently able to survive without drinking at all, for instance gerenuk (but see Hagen, 1975), possibly some other gazelle species, dikdik, and probably oryx. They can extract sufficient water from their food and/or have evolved special water-conserving mechanisms (see, e. , Maloiy, 1972). Other species apparently have to obtain water at least once every few days (e. , elephant, buffalo, zebra) and cannot do without it for long (cf. Heath and Field, 1974). These limits of physiologic tolerance greatly affect the species' choice of habitat, extent of movements and pattern of daily activity (see Chap.
These two categories are here considered together. Defecation is often preceded by pawing or scraping of· the ground with one or both forefeet, e. , in several species of gazelles, in dikdik, oribi and oryx, but not in Reduncinae or Tragelaphines. Scraping with forefeet after defecation appears to be rare; it has been recorded in steinbuck (Tinley, 1969). Scraping with the hindfeet after defecation is a feature of the two species of rhinoceros, which leave clearly visible scrape-marks at their dung heaps.