African Climate and Climate Change: Physical, Social and by Charles J. R. Williams, Dominic R. Kniveton

By Charles J. R. Williams, Dominic R. Kniveton

Compared to many different areas of the area, Africa is very at risk of the consequences of weather switch and variability. common poverty, an in depth affliction burden and wallet of political instability around the continent has led to a low resilience and constrained adaptative means of African society to weather comparable shocks and stresses. To compound this vulnerability, there is still huge wisdom gaps on African weather, manifestations of destiny weather swap and variability for the quarter and the linked difficulties of weather switch affects. learn as regards to African weather swap calls for an interdisciplinary procedure linking reviews of environmental, political and socio-economic spheres. during this ebook we use diverse case reviews on weather swap and variability in Africa to demonstrate assorted methods to the examine of weather switch in Africa from around the spectrum of actual, social and political sciences. In doing so we try to spotlight a toolbox of methodologies (along with their boundaries and merits) which may be used to extra the knowledge of the affects of weather swap in Africa and therefore aid shape the foundation for thoughts to negate the unfavourable implications of weather switch on society.

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2 0 Longitude Fig. 30 Excess-climatology composite of wind at 850 mb for Zone II (left) and Zone V (right) of Belg season. T. Diro et al. 5 60° E 0 Longitude Fig. 31 Excess-climatology composite of wind at 200 mb for Zone II (left) and Zone V (right) of Belg season. 1 level • It is interesting that the impact of ENSO on Belg rainfall is the opposite to the impact of ENSO on the Kiremt rainfall. 8, it is shown that in Kiremt, El-Niño is related to deficit rains, however in the Belg season, El-Niño is related to excess rains.

E. ONDJ SST correlates with FMAM rainfall) is similar to the contemporaneous rainfall-SST relationship but weaker in strength. In other words both contemporaneous (Belg) and the previous Bega (winter) warming/cooling of Equatorial Pacific are associated with excess/deficit rainfall although the contemporaneous relation is stronger. For the two season lag SST-rainfall relationship (the previous JJAS SST correlating with FMAM rainfall), warming of Eastern Pacific (coast of S. America) during the previous Kiremt (which is accompanied by warming of the Indian Ocean) is associated with deficit Belg rainfall.

This implies that the westerly phase of the QBO is associated with deficit rainfall in summer and excess rainfall in spring season. This is due to the fact that for northeast Africa the structure of the mean low level wind is easterly in spring and westerly in summer. 45827 7 0 15 1. 00491 827 1. 1592 0 Composite of crossection of U based on deficit-climatology of zone IIa rainfall -5 –10 0 Latitude 10 20 30 –5 200 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 Latitude Fig. 7 excess-climatology (left) and deficit-climatology (right) composites of cross sections of zonal wind speed (m/s) during Kiremt season.

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